Telephone Switching: Simple telephone connection, switching and signaling systems, single and multi- stage space switching. Analysis and design. Time/Digital switching systems, TS, ST, STS, TST systems, concept of packet switching and ATM, practical systems, circuit switching hierarchy and routing, signal systems – SS7. telephone instruments, pulse and tone dialing, BORSCHT functions, modems, digital subscribers loops, telephone traffic theory. Telephone Networks: Motivation for ISDN, New services, network and protocol architecture, transmission channels, user-network interfaces, service characterization, internetworking, ISDN standards, expert systems in ISDN, B-ISDN, voice data integration.